Mesenchymal chondroblasts of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in which both proteins are highly expressed. Parenthetically, jnk has been associated with an inactivating phosphorylation of bc1-2 [32,33] and could counter the effects of pkc-î±; however, since p-jnk was confined to the nucleus in this study, it is less likely to affect cytoplasmic bc1-2 and obversely could be exerting a stimulatory effect by induction of activator protein-1 (ap1) synthesis [34]. Expression of cd99 appears relevant in this context, given its documented role as a mediator of mapk (jnk and erk) activation via a pkc pathway [35,36]. These pathways and events are summarized in fig. 4 ↓. viagra online viagra for sale viagra for sale buy generic viagra cheap generic viagra buy cheap viagra cheap viagra online cheap viagra View larger version: in this window in a new window fig. 4. Cartoon of a mesenchymal chondroblast in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma illustrating the findings in this study (*) and incorporating relevant data from the literature. The molecular pathways created by functional grouping of these proteins provide for a pathogenetic sequence (red color) leading to tumor growth, prevention of apoptosis, and chondrogenic differentiation that involve: (1) activation (+) with plasmalemmal translocation and phosphorylation of pkc-î± by pdgfr-î±, il-1î±, and cd99; (2) stimulation of tumor growth via activation (+) of mitogen-activated protein kinases including c-jun-n-terminal kinase (jnk) that leads to dna synthesis as evidenced by ki-67 with a contribution by il-6 and tgf-î²1; (3) phosphorylation of bc1-2 by activated pkc-î± resulting in a state of anti-apoptosis in the tumor; and (4) expression of p-p38mapk which, together with pkc-î± and with the stabilizing influence of bc1-2, promotes chondrogenic differentiation. Opportunities for therapeutic intervention are depicted in blue color and include: (a) ciprofloxacin and interferon (ifn)î± to inhibit (−) pkc activity, thereby slowing growth and favoring apoptosis of tumor cells; (b) sti571 to inhibit (−) pdgfr-î± signaling; and (c) rapamycin which potentially inhibits (−) jnk activity and modulates (−) pkc-î± and p38mapk signaling pathways. Molecular commonalities between mesenchymal chondrosarcoma and non-neoplastic chondrogenesis of mesenchymal cells have been revealed by the findings of this study and by computer-assisted mining of the published data. These include expression and activation of pkc-î±and p38mapk [9–12,37]. These observations coincide with the bimorphic nature of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, supporting the concept of oncogenesis recapitulating ontogenesis of cartilage. Finally, the molecular profile that we have developed for mesenchymal chondrosarcoma u.
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